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Peoplese Grammar


                  TABLE OF CONTENTS  (scroll down for complete discussion.  You may also click on any word.)

 NOUNS
 ADNOUNS
 ADVERBS
 LISTS
 Mid-dot nouns  Adnoun endings
 Introducers
 compound words lists
 Compound nouns  Adnoun types
 CONJUNCTIONS  demonyms
 Function nouns  Compound adnoun suffixes
 PREPOSITIONS  function nouns examples
 Gender-specific nouns  Regional adnouns
 INTERJECTIONS  language names
 Non-countable nouns  ADADNOUNS  PUNCTUATION  MAIN COMPONENTS
 Prefixes & suffixes
 VERBS  Punctuation marks  mid-dot word examples
 Noun-articles
 Irregular verbs (4)  Underlining  nations' names & adjectives
 Pronouns  Active & passive modes  Italics  Peoplese vocabulary
 Gerunds  Verb tenses  Quantity
 prefixes (unique) list
   Infinitives  (English participles)   suffixes (unique) list

SPELLING:  Capitalization, Plurals, Ordinal numbers, Abbreviations, Acronyms, Romanization 
(click on above Spelling tab, then on Alike English)



INTRODUCTION TO PEOPLESE GRAMMAR

             Welcome.  If you are unfamiliar with Peoplese language, please read the home page and the Overview section, then click on the orange buttons top and bottom, and glance at each page, to further acquaint you with the language.  This will provide the necessary foundation needed for this Grammar section.

            Peoplese grammar is based primarily on English grammar, yet Peoplese is simpler and more intuitive, requiring much less memorization, and thus much easier and quicker to learn.

            Peoplese has two spelling versions, Alike English and Sound Spell Same.  The grammar of both systems is exactly the same.  This grammar section uses Alike English, which is completely understandable to English speakers.


WORD STRUCTURE                                                                       

            Peoplese is based on root۔words to which can be add۔d prefixes and suffixes each with a fixed meaning.

                        The spelling of the root۔word, never changes.  (No doubling of letters, eliminating vowels, ete.)

The root-word, is separated from prefixe and suffix by a hyphnette (a half-length hyphen). 

Examples:  wide۔er, pre۔pay, rain۔ing, tell۔d, spoon۔ful, re۔supply۔d.

                        Each prefix and each suffix has one and only one meaning.

                        It is not wrong to attach any prefix or suffix to any root-word.

 

SENTENCE STRUCTURE

             The standard Peoplese active-mode structure is:  subject + verb + verb-object. 

                        Ex:  The boy throw۔d a ball.

Peoplese is an international language with built-in flexibility, enable۔ing various ethnicitys to

            express themselves.  Subject-verb-object structure can be modified for ethnic preference,

                        emphasis, poetic expression, humor, speaker’s whim.

            Ex:  Standard:  “I go home.”  Also acceptable:  “Go i home.”  “Home i go.”

                  Writers of Peoplese from many languages may use Peoplese words with their own flavor, including

                        syntax, phrasology, similes, pronunciation, and other ways of speaking, thereby add۔ing to the

                                    cultural depth of Peoplese language. 

(Guidelines on creating new Peoplese words:  home page → lower rightside button.)

                  There is no requirement that every sentence contain a subject and a verb.

                        Ex:  Now rain۔ing.  [English “It is raining”, but “it” has no antecedent and “is” is superfluous.]

                                    Yet it is also correct Peoplese to write, “It iz rain۔ing.”

 

            Exclamatory-sentences uses statement-sentence strucuture followed by an exclamation-mark.

                        Ex:  Wow!  Peoplese is really easy and quick to learn!
 

            Question-sentences

                        In writing, question-sentences end with a question mark.
                                   
In speaking, the last word of a question sentences uses a rising pirch:  the pitch rises.
                                    Ex:  Really?  (The pitch of the final “ly” syllable is higher than the beginning pitch.)

                        The basic Peoplese question sentence structure is:  verb + subject + verb-object
                                    To form a question, reverse the position of the subject and verb in a sentence.
                                    Ex:  Statement:  He iz going home.  Question:  Iz he going home?
                                    Ex:  Can we go?  (The statement sentence equivalent is:  We can go.)
                                    Ex:  Should i eat more fruits?  (Statement sentence:  I should eat more fruits.)

                        Alternatively, use a statement-sentence followed by a question mark (rising pitch).
                                    This structure often, but not necessarily, indicates doubt of validity, or surprise.
                                    Ex:  You win
۔d the lottery?  (Implied:  I doubt that you did.)

Ex:  You can speak Korea۔ese?  (Implied:  Wow!)

                        Alternative question sentence structure:  do + statement sentence + ?
                                    Ex:  Do you want more coffee?  (Statement sentence:  You want more coffee.
                                    Ex:  Did you finish?  (Past tense uses did; subsequent verb is verb-root, not past tense.)

                        Question sentences using:  what, where, who, which, why, will, when.  Form:
                                    Ex:  What iz your name?
                                    Ex:  Where wuz you birth
۔d?
                                    Ex:  Who iz your parents?
                                    Ex:  Which parent iz tall
۔er?
                                    Ex:  Why iz you ask
۔ing?
                                    Ex:  Will these questions ever end?
                                    Ex:  When will yous stop ask
۔ing me questions?

                        Add-on questions
                                    Ex:  The show iz tonight, iz·not it?  The show iz tonight, iz it not?
                                    Ex:  You finish
۔d your dinner, correct?

 

PARTS OF SPEECH

       NOUNS

            A noun is a word for a person, place, or thing.

                        A common-noun is a word for a type of person, place, or thing (concrete or abstract).

                                    Example:  man, library, book, stadium, balls, picnics, love, joy, benevolence.

                        A proper-noun (always capitalized) is a word for a specific person, place, or thing.

                                    Ex:. Mister Rogers, Newberry Library, Cantebury Tales, Argentina.

                        Gerunds and mid-dot words are other types of noun – described below.

            In a sentence, the subject, verb-object, indirect-object, and preposition-objects are nouns.

Ex:  The man throw۔d the ball to the boy in the stadium.

                                    The subject (the man) is the main focus of the sentence. 

A sentence describes what the sentence-subject does, thinks, feels, and so on.

                                    The verb-object receives the action of the verb.

                                    Ex:  What did the man throw?  He throw۔d the ball (the verb-object).

                        The indirect-object is the recipient of the verb-object.

                                    Ex:  Above, the recipient of the ball is the boy (the indirect-object).

                        Prepositional phrases add meaning to sentences.

                                    A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition followed by a preposition-object.

                                    (More about prepositional phrases, and a list of prepositions, below.)

                                    Ex:  Above, “in” is the preposition, “stadium” is the preposition-object.

 

            Mid-dot Nouns

                        Mid-dot nouns are nouns formed with two (occasionally three) nouns separated by a mid-dot.

                                    A mid-dot is a raised period.  In dictionaries, it is often used to separate syllables.

                        (A mid-dot can be typed on computer keyboard by pressing the “alt” key plus one other

                                    key of your choice.  See FAQ for simple instructions.)

                        The criterion for a mid۔dot word is as follows:  If all words within a mid-dot word are known,

                                    then the meaning of the mid-dot word is automatically known without further instruction.

                        Ex:  wrist·clock, blue·berry, camp·fire, couch·table, war·ship, doll·house, wild·flower.

                        Mid-dot words can also be used to minimize the gap between two words,

                                    which is useful in verbal conversation.

                                    Ex:  “I will go now” may seem somewhat stilted, unless the speaker pushes the two

                                                words “I” and “will” together – written “I·will” with a mid-dot in Peoplese –

simlar to English contraction “I’ll”.  Useful for, e.g., fiction writers.

                        Peoplese has more than 1,000 mid-dot words.  None need to be memorized.

                        When creating new words, mid-words are the first choice, because they do not need to be

                                    memorized. 

                        For a lot at examples of mid-dot words, click "mid-dot" in the LINK column at the top of this page.


            Compound Nouns

                        Compound nouns are nouns composed of more than one word, but they do not meet the

                                    mid-dot criterion.  Knowing both words in a compound word is not enough to

                                                infer the compound word’s meaning.  Thus, the words are separated not by a

 mid-dot but by a hyphen (twice the length of a hyphnette). 

      Ex:  verb-object, proposition-object.

                        Combining two English words into a single Peoplese noun.

When two English words form a meaning that is not an obvious result of the combination

of those two words, Peoplese combines them into a single Peoplese word.

                                    Noun ex:  adhoc, adamsapple, airforce, almamater, avantgarde, bestman, billyclub,

                                                blackeye, blindromdate, bullseye.  (More on this subject, below.)

 

            Function-nouns

            Are Jian-guo and Neville personal names of males or females?  Unless you speak Chinese or French, you probably don’t know.  Is a farmer necessarily a man?  In the emerging one-world society where many women are finally allowed to choose any career, when writing or speaking about somebody, the reader or hearer doesn’t necessarily know the gender.  Functional people and things in Peoplese end in “or”.

            Function-nouns are a quick non-verbose way to designate function and gender.

            Function-nouns can be active or passive.

      Active Function-nouns

            Criteron:  We can say “that which + verb” or “one who” + verb.

“one who” can also be:  he who, she who, they who, we who, ta who, etc.

Form:  verb-root + hyphnette + or / orm / ort

            ۔or:  neutral, either gender.       ۔orm:  female.       ۔ort:  male.

                        Ex:  amplify۔or (that which amplifies), farm۔orm (she who farms), toast۔or (that which

                                    toasts), babble۔ors (they who babble), avenge۔or (he or she who avenges),

blend۔or (that which blends, a mechanical devise that blends foods).

                        Ex:  inform۔ort, perform۔orms, golf۔orm, hike۔ors.

                        As usual, Peoplese isolated the word-root (in this case a verb-root), whose spelling

                                    does not change.

                  Passive Function Nouns

                        Passive Function Nouns receive the action in the sentence.

                        Form:  verb-root + hyphnette + eer / eerm / eert

                        Ex:  insult۔eer (somebody who was insulted), adore۔eerm (a female adored),

                                    blame۔eert (he who was/is blamed), rescue۔eer (he or she who was rescued).

                        Ex:  employ۔eer [English employee], detain۔eert [male detainee], colonize۔eer.

                        Ex:  English “renter” could be “rent۔or” (one who rents, e.g. the landlord)

                                    or “rent۔eer” (one who pays the rent).

                        To view lists of the e types of function nouns, click on "function noun example" in the list column at top of this page.


            Non-functional Gender-specific Nouns

                        Non-function gender-specific nouns describe people, but they do not qualify as function-nouns.

            Form : word-root + or / orm / ort  (word endings, attached to verb۔root with no hyphnette).

                        “orm” word-ending designates female; “ort”, male; “or” either (gender not spcified).

            Ex:  villagor (not a function word because we cannot say “he who or that which villages”)

            Ex:  foreignor (not somebody who foreigns, so doesn't qualify as a function noun)

            Ex:  toddlor (gender not specified), youngstorm (female youngster), hairs·stylorm (female).

            Many English words ending in “er” are translated to Peoplese with an “or” word-ending.

                        Ex:  strangor, soldior, partnor, teenagorts, scholor [English scholar], outsidor.

                        Thus, a strangorm is a woman, a partnort a man; a scholor could be either gender.

 

Non-countable Nouns

                        Nouns are also categorized as countable and uncountable.

                        Countable nouns can be counted.  Ex:  houses, toys, ships, cats.

                        Uncountable nouns cannot be counted. 

Ex:  rain, advice, beer, philosophy, gas, heat, wood, wheat, dirt.                       

                                    Plural “s” is not added to uncountable nouns.

                        Examples of nonountable nouns:

                                    Liquids & gases:  water, milk, coffee, beer.  Air, gas, oxygen, smoke. 

                                    Granular:  rice, wheat, corn, flour, salt, sugar, sand.

                                    Abstractions:  beauty, competence, happyness.  Education, socialism.

                                    Nature:  weather, haze, mist, rain, hail, snow, thunder, sunshine. Electricity, magnetism.

                                    Misc:  money, biology.

                        Some nouns are classified as countable in some languages, noncountable in others.

                                    Peoplese generally follows English, but eliminates inconsistencies.

                                                Ex:  English “fruit and vegetables” because “fruit” is considered noncountable

                                                            and vegetables countable.  Peoplese:  “fruits and vegetables”.

                                                English noucountable-nouns (in plural form) that Peoplese classifies as countable:

                                                            fishes, fruits, furnitures, datas, informations.

                        Adnouns which imply plurality do not precede singular noun and noncountable nouns:

                                    each, either, every, neither, these, those.  That is common sense.

                                    (Adnouns are similar to English adjectives, except that they enhance only nouns,

                                                in the same way that adverbs enhance only verbs.  More below.)

                        Countable and uncountable nouns are treated differently with regard to articles (below).

            ;                       For things we can count, we use:  many + plural noun.  Ex:  many boats, many apples

For noncountable-nouns, use:  much + singular noun.  Ex:  much water, much laughter.

                        Noncountable nouns can be rendered countable by adding a countable-noun.

                                    Form:  countable-noun + of + uncountable noun

                                    Ex:  two buckets of water, two liters of milk, an hour of advice, four sacks of sand.

                                    Ex:  those two tanks of helium.  Ex:  Neither liter of milk iz fresh.

                        There is no clear bountry between countable and uncountable.  One Peoplese writer may

                                    consider a noun countable that another Peoples writer from another or the same culture

                                                considers noncountable – both correct in Peoplese.

                                    Ex:  Are tree leaves countable?  Theoretically, yes.  English, and Peoplese, put “leaves”

                                                in the countable category;  Peoplese “many leafs”, but “much leafs” is also

                                                acceptable, perhaps reflecting the speaker’s view that tree leaves are not

                                                realistically countable.  “grass”, on the other hand, clearly nocountable.

                        And any Peoplese speaker can add plural “s” to a noncountable noun, whether as a whim, for

                                                a laugh, creating new slang, artistic expression, whatever. 

                                    Thus you may have heard, “Two coffees, please.”, “Those vases are beautys.”,

Song lyrics, “many waters”.


              Prefixes and Suffixes

                         A key feature of Peoplese is the use of prefixes and suffixes, each with a unique meaning.

                         Each prefix and suffix is separated from a word-root by a hyphnette (a half-length hyphen).

                                   The spelling of the word-root never changes.

                         Any prefix or suffix can be added to any word-root that makes sense to the speaker.

                         For more details, and complete lists, click on "Prefixes" and "Suffixes" in the LINKs column
                                  at the top of this grammar page.                   

 

Noun-Articles:  a, an, ap, the

                        Preceding singular nouns, noun-articles are permitted but not required.  When useful, they are handy to insert; when not needed for clarification, they clutter.  In English, the most frequently used word is one of the least useful:   “the”.  Oriental and southeastern Asian languages have no noun-articles, and can clearly communicate meaning. E.g., "In India near end of dry season..."  In the sentence, "In India near the end of the dry season,...", both "the's" add nothing but clutter.  

                        Noun-articles do have a function.   The noun-article “the” is used when referring something already mentioned or that the listener/reader   is assume to have knowledge of. 

                                    Ex:  “Of all desserts, i like chocolate cake best” (not “the best”) refers to all deserts, not only those at hand.  “Of all the desserts, i like chocolate cake best” refers to specific deserts, e.g., those on the restaurant menu.

                        “a” emphasizes that the noun is not specific.  Ex:  I hope to find a job soon.

                        “an” is the same meaning as “a” but with an added “n” to distinguish it from the subsequent noun beginning with a vowel.  Ex:  an enjoy۔able evenin, an open mind

"ap" is an article meaning "approximately". Ap twenty peoples attend۔d.

“the moon” commonly refers to Earth’s moon, although there are zillions of moons.

Noun-articles generally precede adnouns which precede the noun.

            Ex:  a good job; the full moon, the chocolate cake.

 

        Nations & Regions - names, adjectives, and demonyms.  To view lists, see the LINKS column at the top of this page.


        Language names - for explanation and list, click on " " in the LINKS column at the top of this page.

 

       Pronouns  (click "Pronouns" in menu at top of this page)

 

       Gerunds

            Gerunds, which are converted from verbs, can act as verbs, nouns, and adnouns.

            Form:  verb-root + hyphnette + in.   (As always, spelling of verb-root never changes.)

            Gerunds used as nouns.

                        Ex:  Smile۔in iz contageous.  I love dance۔in.  Teach۔in iz hard work.

            Gerunds used as adnouns.  (Adnouns enhance nouns by adding description.)

                        Ex:  A sleep۔in giant iz fearsome.  That talk-in bird iz amaze۔y!.

            Gerunds, unlike common nouns, can be followed by objects.

                        Ex:  Play۔in basketball iz fun.  Eat۔in those mushrooms upset۔d my stomach.

             [In English, objects of verbs can be either gerunds or infinitives, depending on the verb.
                       Students must memorize which is which, and if they make the wrong choice, their English is "wrong".
                       (See "Infinitive" section below.)
                       Some English verbs that require gerunds as verb objects:  admit, advise, avoid, consider, risk,
                                recommend, suggest, and many more.  Ex:  He advised continuing until complete.
                       Some English verbs that require infinitives as verb objects:  agree, decide, deserve, expect, forget,
                                learn, plan, promise, want, and many more.  Ex:  Don't forget to buy fruit..
                       This is another example of why English requires ten or more years to learn, even then not perfectly.]

             In Peoplese objects of verbs can be either gerunds or infinitives, regardless of the verb.
                      Ex:  He advise
۔d continue۔ing.  He advise۔d to continue.  He advise۔d continue.
                      Ex:  Dont forget to buy fruit.  Dont forget buy
۔in fruit.  Dont forget buy fruit.
                      The above examples are all comprehendable, and all are correct.  Chinese speakers would probably
                               prefer "Dont forget buy fruit", as it matches their language; Spanish speakers would tend to say
                               "Dont forget to buy fruit" because it matches their language.  English speakers would probably say
                               "Don't forget to buy fruit" because "forget" is one of the English verbs that requres an infinitive object.
                               Eventually we could expect "to", because it is superfluous, to drop out of Peoplese language.

             [English speakers say, "It is common to celebrate birthdays", yet "Celebrating birthdays is common."
                      Whatever the English rule requiring this distinction, there is no such rule in Peoplese.
                      We can repeat the above, or say "It iz common celebrating birthdays", "To celebrate birthdays is common."

             [Another English rule requires infinitive objects after certain specified verbs followed by pronouns.
                      English rule after English rule, the list is long, with grammar tyrants ever ready to pounce on mistakes.]
                      In Peoplese, gerunds and infinitives can be used interchangeably, as long as comprehendable.
                               Often that invovles re-writing the sentence. Word-for-word translations are often infeasible.


       ADNOUNS

 
            Adnouns are words that add description to nouns. 

                        Adnouns add description to nouns in the same way that adverbs add description to verbs.

                        Adnouns are similar to English adjectives, except that adnouns describe only nouns.

                                    [English adjectives also describe adjectives, as in “pale blue shirt”.]

                                    [In other languages functions of “adjective” slightly differ.]

                                    Adnouns don’t modify (change) nouns; they enhance nouns.

                        Ex:  The noun “boy” doesn’t tell us much.  Happy boy, energetic blond boy, tall limp۔ing

Indian boy, and so on, adds a lot more information. 

            In simple Peoplese sentences, adnouns generally precede nouns.  Adnouns can be placed after the noun

                        or elsewhere in a sentence according to speaker or writer’s choice, possibly give۔ing Peoplese a

flavor from their own native language – the only requirement is complete clarity as to

            which noun the adnoun enhances.

                                    Ex (common):  red ball, handsome man, tall tree

                         Adnouns can be separated by a verb.

                                    Ex:  She iz beautyful.  ("she" is the noun, ""beautiful" the adnoun describing the noun)                        

            Nouns can have no adnouns, one adnoun, or several adnouns.  Ex:  cute little red house

                        Commas between adnouns are not required, although they may be added for clarity.

                        When a noun is preceeded by several adnouns, generally the adnouns are listed in order

                                    of importance – unless a reason (e.g. artistic preference) why not.

                                    Ex:  “green slim۔y gigantic fish” is poor diction; “gigantic” should normally come first.

            Composite adnouns

                        When two English words form a meaning that is not an obvious result of the combination of those two

                                    words, Peoplese combines them into a single Peoplese word.

                                    E.g. in English “of course”, the meaning of “of” plus the meaning of “course” does not

                                                equate to the meaning of “of course”.  In Peoplese, one word:  “ofcourse”

                        Adnoun ex:  defacto, dejure, gungho, ipsofacto, lastditch, lawstraw, nextdoor.

 

            Adnoun  Endings

                        Definitions

                                    Word-ending:  one or more letters added to a root-word without punctuation.

                                                Word-endings often indicate parts of speech (e.g. adnoun), but they do not

                                                            have unique meanings.  Ex:  accidental, illusive, generous, historic.

                                    Suffix:  one or more letters added to a root-word after a hyphynette (half-hyphen).

                                                Each suffix has a unique meaning.  Ex:  big۔er, hat۔less, home۔ward.

                        Most of the oldest adnouns that Peoplese takes from English have no word-endings.

Ex:  good, round, tall, fast, blue, bright, wet, old, deep, hot, cold.

                        Many newer words in Peoplese (taken from English) have standard adnoun word-endings.

                                    Ex:  righteous, scientific, responsive, seasonal, restrictive, patriotic, conscientious.

                                    Typical adnoun word-endings:  al, eous, iac,  ial, ic, ious, ous, sive, tive, ual.

                                                Ex:  vocal, generous, maniac, global, basic, serious, pourous, festive, usual.

                                                These adnoun word-endings all have various definitions, thus are not suitable as

                                                            suffixes (each suffix with one unique meaning).

                        Adnoun-suffixes

                                    Each Peoplese adnoun-suffix has a unique meaning.

                                    An adnoun-suffix can be added (after a hyphnette) to any word.

                                                In Peoplese, the spelling of the root-word never changes.  [Unlike English.]

                                    Adnoun-suffixes include:  ۔er, ۔est, ۔ful, ۔ish, ۔less, ۔proof, ۔ward, ۔tall.

                                                The default adnoun-suffix is:  ۔y.  Ex:  fog۔y, guilt۔y, ice۔y, sag۔y, sun۔y, fire۔y.

                                                            When forming new adnouns, ۔y suffix is our first choice.

                                                For a complete list of suffixes, click "Suffixes" in hte LINK column at the top of this page.

                                                Ex:  cheap۔er, sharp۔est, truck۔ful, child۔ish, error۔less, rain۔proof, sky۔ward.

                                                Ex:  cheap۔er, sharp۔est, truck۔ful, child۔ish, error۔less, rain۔proof, sky۔ward.

                        To view a list of adnouns, at the top of this page click on Main Components, then on adnouns.

 
            Types of Adnouns:   Static-adnouns,  Continuing-adnouns, Passive-adnouns

                        Static-adnouns

                                    Static-adnouns describe a general situation or a situation that is not changing.

                                    Default form:  word-root + hyphnette + y

                                    [English:  Static adnouns are similar to common English adjectives, except they do not describe adadnouns.]

                                    Ex:  red ball, tall man, health۔y baby, amaze۔y statement, anger۔y man, astonish۔y story.

                                    Ex:  smoke۔y pub  (during evenings the pub is smokey from cigarettes -- a general situation)

                                    Adadnouns are used to enhance (add description to) static-adnouns.  (See adadnoun section.)

                        Continuing-adnouns

                                    Continuing-adnouns describe something that the noun is doing (or not doing) now.

                                    Form:  verb-root + hyphnette + ing.

                                    Note:  If the noun is not doing anything, we don't add "-ing" to it's adnoun(s).   [Unlike English.]

                                    [English:  Continuing-adnouns are equivalent to English present-participles used as adjectives.].

                                    Ex:  English "smiling  girl"   Peoplese "smile۔ing girl"  (the girl is smiling)

                                    Ex:  boil۔ing water, swell۔ing bruise, loosen۔ing necktie, die۔ing cat, grow۔ing puppy, warm۔ing climate,
                                                deteriorate
۔ing relationship, rapid۔ly learn۔ing student, rot۔ing fruits, cool۔ing ocean, collapse۔ing roof

                                    Ex:  surround۔ing enemy  (the enemy is doing something, surrounding the fort)

                                    Ex:  smoke۔ing pub  (the pub caught fire, was extinguished, but is still smoking)

                                    Example of negative:  the nolonger smoke۔ing.pub

                                    Adverbs are used to enhance (add description to) continuing-adnouns, whose root-words are verbs.
                                                Ex:  rapid۔ly recede۔ing flood

                                    Note that in Peoplese, an "-ing" suffix always refers to continuing action, whether a verb or an adnoun.

                                    [In English, by contrast, words ending in “ing” can be verbs (falling), nouns (sibling), adjectives (amazing),
                                                adverbs (notwithstanding), and pronouns (everything).]

                        Passive-adnouns

                                     Passive-adnouns are formed from verbs in passive-mode.  Like all adnouns, they add description to nouns.

                                     Most passive-adnouns describe something that the noun has done or experienced.

                                     Form:  verb-root + hyphnette + t

                                     [English:  Passive-adnons are equivalent to past-participles used as adjectives.]

                                     Note:  In Peoplese, no adnouns end in "-d" suffix.

                                     Ex:  abandon۔t car  (The car was abandoned by somebody.)
                                     Ex:  The break
۔t window wuz never fix۔t.  (Nobody fixed the broken window.)
                                     Ex:  crack
۔t glass.  (The glass was cracked by somebody -- passive-mode verb.)
                                     Ex:  swell
۔t bruise, belove۔t aunt, weave۔t tapestry, pay۔t bill.
                                     Ex:  The surround
۔t fort wuz in danger.
                                     Ex:  The surround
۔t forest further isolate۔d the house.  Active mode:  The forest surround the house.

                                     Negatives take the same form:
                                                Ex:  non
۔test۔t formula
                                                Ex:  non
۔paint۔t house 
                                                Ex:  non۔develope۔t sense of morality

                                     Not all passive-adnouns refer to past situations.
                                                Ex:  A script۔t ceremony will lack spontaneity.
                                                Ex:: A modify۔t version would be more popular.
                                                Ex:  Clean۔ly dress۔t children usual۔ly make a good impression.
                                                Ex:  Promply pay۔t bills ensure good commercial relationships.

                                     Adverbs are used to enhance (add description to) passive-adnouns, whose root-words are verbs.
                                                Ex:  newl۔y fix۔t car, clean۔ly shave۔t man, thick۔ly populate۔t city, high۔ly experience۔t teach۔or

                                     For further discussion of passive-mode, click on "Active & passive modes" at the top of this page.

            Comparison of the three types of adnouns, examples:
                                     Static-adnoun:  irritate
۔y man  (Describes a character trait:  he often irritates his co-workers.) 
                                     Cointinuing-adnoun:  irritate۔ing man   (The man is talking too loud, irritating guests at a nearby table.)
                                     Passive-adnoun:  irritate
۔t man   (The man is not causing irritation; he is being irritated by a loud sound.)
      

            Note that with all three types of adnouns, the root-verb remains isolated, with no change in spelling.


            Simple and Compound Adnoun Suffixes.  Each suffix has one and only one meaning.

                        Form:  root-word + hyphnette + suffix

                        Each adnouns suffix has a unique meaning.

                        Simple Adnoun suffixes:  ۔able, ۔alike, ۔bound, ۔er, ۔est, ۔fold, ۔high, ۔ing, ۔ish, ۔length, ۔less, ۔long, ۔proof
                                    
۔rear, ۔shape, ۔size, ۔span, ۔t, ۔tall, ۔term, ۔top, ۔ward, ۔wide, ۔y

                        Compound Adnoun Suffixes.  Common sense - no need to memorize, but listed here for reference.
                                    ۔ets.   From ۔et +۔s     Ex:  truck۔ets  (plural of "truck۔et")  The root-word is always isolated for easy recognition.
                                    ۔fuls    From ۔ful + ۔s   Ex:   plate۔fuls  (plural of "plate۔ful").
                                    ۔ins        From ۔in + ۔s.   Plural noun suffix.
                                    ۔lessly   From ۔less + ۔ly    Ex:  need۔lessly
                                    ۔ors, ۔orms, ۔orts    From ۔or + ۔s, ۔orm + ۔s, ۔ort + ۔s       Ex:  Farm۔orms  (female farmers)
                                    ۔yer.     From ۔y + ۔er.   Ex:  wealth۔yer  [English “wealthier”].
                                   
۔yest.   From ۔y + ۔est.  Ex:  thrift۔yest  [English “thriftiest”]
                                    ۔yly       From ۔y + ۔ly.  Ex:  thirst۔yly
                                    ۔yness   From ۔y + ۔ness   Ex:  mess۔yness
 

            Regional Adnouns

                        To convert a regional name into a regional adjective, simply add the standard adjective suffix "y"  to the name.

                        Ex:  Indonesia-y currency, France-y architecture, Basil-y salsa, Kenya-y population.

                        Ex:  Therefore the ambiguous English word "French" is translated into Peoplese as either
                                    Fancen (a person), France-ese (the language), or France-y (description of a thing).

  Ex:  France-y architecture was designed by Francen architects who spoke France-ese.

  For a list of national adjectives, click on "national adjectives" in LINK column at the top of this page.

 

 ADADNOUNS

            Adadnouns are words that add descriptions to adnouns. 

                        In the same way, adverbs add description to verbs, and adnouns add description to nouns.

            Form:  word-root + hyphnette + by.

(Suffix “by” is pronounced “bee”, as on honeybee, rhymes with “see”.)

                        Any word-root can be used, regardless of it’s part-of-speech.

                               Ex:  amaze۔by beautyful  (verb + by).  bitter۔by un۔happy  (adnoun + by).

            Ex:  pale۔by blue eyes (adadnoun “pale۔by” describes adnoun “blue”, which describes noun “eyes”.

(The color, not the eyes, are pale.)

Ex:  clear۔by visible, basic۔by accurate, fabulous۔by rich, full۔by automatic

            [English generally uses “ly” word-ending enhancers for both adverbs and adnouns.

English ex: entirely good, generally polite, mildly hilly, orderly city, pleasantly warm.]

           

VERBS

             TYPES OF VERBS

                        Action-verbs indicate movement and/or change.  Ex:  run, imagine, refuse.
                                                Stative-verbs indicate a state or condition.  Ex:  like, want, believe, know.  They like candy.

                                                Active and stative verbs are handled the same way in Peoplese.

                        Lnk-verbs link the subject to another word.  Ex:  be, seem, appear.  She seem happy.
                                                The main linking verbs are forms “be”.  (See chart below.)

                        [Peoplese, unlike English, has no present-participles or past-participles.  Discussion below.]

                        [Peoplese, unlike English, does not have the concept of transitive and intransitive verbs.

                                    English students must learn which verbs are transitive (require an object) and which
                                                            are intransitive (do not require an object), and use them accordingly.

                                    In Peoplese substitutes this memory-demanding requirement with common sense.
                                                Peoplese speakers can say, “Please remind” if the meaning is clear.
                                                            If not clear, they may say, “Please remind me.”]

 

             Irregular  Verbs

                        Peoplese has only four irregular verbs: forms of “be”, “go”, “do”, and “have”.

 ROOT
 PRESENT-SIMPLE
 PAST-SIMPLE
 PASSIVE MODE
 FUTURE SIMPLE
 be
 iz
 wuz
 been
 will be
 go
 go
 go۔d, went
 gone
 will go
 do
 do
 did, do۔d
 done
 will do
 have
 have
 had
 had
 will have

                 Copulas (forms of the verb “to be”). 

            Present-tense Peoplese copula is “iz”, replacing English “is”, “am”, and “are”.

                                    Ex:  Iz youall happy?  They iz happy, but i iz not.

                                    Present tense is also used for general statements.  Ex:  The Earth is spherical.

                        Past-tense Peoplese copula is “wuz”, replacing English “was” and “were”.

                                    Ex:  He wuz late, so they wuz angry.

                        “been” is also used as a helping verb to form tenses.  (See tense list, below.)

                        Generally, copulas add no meaning except tense designation. 

            Better, if possible, to replace copulas with more descriptive verbs.

Ex:  English “I have been to Japan” → I have travel۔d to Japan.  I have visit۔d Japan.

Ex:  English “He hopes to be an actor” → He hope to become an act۔or.

Ex:  English “I will be back in an hour” → I will return within an hour.

                         Some English sentences do not have word-for-word translations; the concept must be translated.

                                    Ex:  English “Truth can be cruel” → Truth iz sometimes cruel.

                                    Ex:  Be prepared! → “Prepare!”

            Past-simple tense of “go” is “go۔d”; “went” (common English) also correct.

                        “gone” is also an adnoun.  Ex:  She iz gone.

            Past-simple tense of “do” is “did”; “do۔d” also correct.

                        Negative past-tense of “did”:  dint (normal); did·not (a bit more emphasis, words pronounced

                                    together quickly); did not (two words, most emphatic), did not (strong denial).

                        “done” is also an adnoun.  Ex:  The work iz done.

            “have” means “possess”.  And “have” and its past-tense “had” are used as helping verbs to form tenses.

            In future-simple “will + be / go / do”, “will” can be replace۔d by “may”, “can”, “could”, “shall”, etc.

                        Ex:  He may be angry.  She can go tomorrow.  He could do it if he try۔d.

                        When negative, “not” is inserted between “will” and be / go / do / have.  Ex:  I will not go. 

            For discussion of irregular passive-mode verbs “been”, “gone”, “done”, and “had”,

                        see passive-mode section below.

 

 VERB TENSES in Active and Passive Modes

            Tense indicates when the action of the verb occurs.

            For casual Peoplese users (chatting, marketing, traveling), the three simple tenses  (present, past, and

                        future) are sufficient.  The other tenses express nuanced meanings; many are seldom used.

            Note that in Peoplese, root-words are always isolated, their spelling never changes.

            Passive mode – notes below.


VERB TENSES

Present-simple  [English “present”, “simple present”]

            Active-modeShe sing the song.    [English:  She sings the song.]

            Passive-mode  The song is sing۔t by she.   [English:  The song is sung by her.]

            Form of all passive verbs:  verb-root + hyphnette + t

            Usage:  Present-simple tense verbs refer to action or condition occur۔ing in the present,

also used to show habits, repetition, generalizations, and scheduled actions.

            Note:  Peoplese does not add “s” to verbs.  [English adds “s” after third-person present-tense verbs.]

            Examples:  If you speak English, you can understand Peoplese.  Earth spin in it’s axis.

She always drink a cup of coffee after breakfast.  I believe God exist.

Two buses depart every morning at eight oclock.

Present-continuous  [English “present progressive”, “present continuous”]

            Active:  She iz sing۔ing the song.   [English:  She is singing the song.]

            Passive The song is being sing۔t by she.                                The song is being sung by her.

            Active form:  verb-root + hyphnette + ing

            Passive form:  verb-root + hyphnette + t

            Usage:  Present-continuous verbs refer to something that is happening currently or frequently.

            Examples:  He iz eat۔ing rice.  (currently)   Ex:  She iz learn۔ing Peoplese. (generally)

Past-to-present-continuous  [English “present perfect continuous”, “present perfect progressive”.]

            ActiveShe have been sing۔ing since one oclock.    [English:  She has been singing since one o’clock.]

            Passive:                                                                        

Usage:  This tense indicate an action or condition that began in the past and continues to the present. 

Note:  Emphasis is on duration, not action.

            Active form:  have + been + verb-root + hyphnette + “ing”

            Relevant words:  dur, recent۔ly, late۔ly

            Examples:  Who have you been talk۔ing to dur the recent۔est hour?

                        He have not been teach۔ing since he become۔d sick three years ago.

                        My son have been play۔ing ball all afternoon.  I have been reside۔ing here all my life.

Present-possible

            ActiveShe can sing the song.   [English:  She can sing the song.]

            PassiveThe song can be sing۔t by her.   [English:  The song can be sung by her.]

                        Present-conditional  [English “simple conditional, conditional present.]

                                    ActiveShe would sing the song.    [English:  She would sing the song.]

                                    Passive:  The song would be sing۔t by her.   [English:  The song would be sung by her.]

                                    Usage:  Verbs in this tense are used in main clauses of sentences that depend on a condition. 

                                            The condition, can be stated in a conditional clause (often beginning with “if…”), or the condition

                                                    may be implied or referred by earlier sentences.

                                    Active form for the main clause:  would + verb-root

                                    Passive form:  would + be + verb-root + hyphnette + t

                                    Examples:  If i had purchase۔d that land ten years ago, i would be rich now.

                                            If i iz you, i would go now.  [English:  If i were [sic] you, i would go now.]

                                            If you go now, you would arrive on time.  [English:  If you went now, you would arrive on time.]

Past-simple  [English “past”, “simple past”]

            ActiveShe sing۔d the song.   [English:  She sang the song.]

            Passive The song wuz sing۔t by she.   [English:  The song was sung by her.]

            Active form of past-simple verbs:  verb-root + hyphnette + d

            Passive form:  wuz + verb-root + hyphnette + t

Past-continuous  [English “past-continuous”, “past progressive”]

            ActiveShe wuz sing۔ing the song.     [English:  She was singing the song.]

            PasssiveThe song wuz being sing۔t by she.   [English:  The song was being sung by her.]

            Active form:  wuz + verb-root + hyphnette + “ing”.

            Passive form:  wuz + being + verb-root + hyphnette + t

Usage:  Past-continuous tense verbs are used when a past action was interrupted, or when two past

actions occurred simultaneously.  Emphasis is on the action, not on duration.

Past-comparison  [English “past perfect”, “past perfect progressive”, “pluperfect”]

            ActiveShe had sing۔t the song.    [English;  She had sung the song.]

            Passive:   She song had been sing۔t by she.   [English:  The song had been sung by her.]

            Usage:  Past-comparison tense verbs express an action that occur۔d one or more times in the past before

                        another event in the past.

            Active form:  had + verb-root + hyphnette + “d”

            Passive form:  had + been + verb-root + hyphnette + t

            Relevant words:  since, dur [equivalent of English “during”], entire (time)

            Examples:  She had study۔d Korea۔ese before she travel۔d to Korea.

                        My daughter had learn۔d the alphabet before she start۔d school.

                        By the time she receive۔d her doctorate, she had study۔d 21 years in schools.

                        I had not finish۔d my dinner, when the door·bell ring۔d.

Past-experience  [English “present perfect”]

            Active:  She have sing۔d the song.    [English:  She has sung the song.]

            Passive:  The song have been sing۔t by she.    [English:  The song has been sung by her.]

            Usage:  Past-experience tense verbs express an action or condition that accured before now at an

                                    unspecified time or times.  Often they describe an experience.

                        When, or how many times, the past event occurred is not specified. 

To specify the event’s time, use past-simple tense.  

            Active form:  have + verb-root + hyphnette + “d”.

            Passive form:  have + been + verb-root + hyphnette + t

Note:  the word “has” doesn’t exist in Peoplese.  [English “has” → Peoplese “have”.]

            Relevant words for this tense:  already, before, ever, once, yet, sofar, never, not yet.

            Examples:  I have travel۔d to Japan.  I travel۔d to Japan dur recent۔est March.

Past-to-past-continuous  [English “past perfect continuous.]

ActiveShe had been sing۔ing dur an hour…    [English:  She had been singing for an hour…]

Passive:                                                                        

Usage:  Verbs in this tense indicate an action or condition that began in the past and continued to

another point in the past.  Emphasis is on duration, not action.

                        This tense is ideal for demonstrating cause and effect.

            Active form:  had + been + verb-root + hyphnette + “ing”

            Examples:  She had been wait۔ing almost an hour when he arrive۔d.

                        He had not even been work۔ing one month, before he wuz job·terminate۔d.

                        He win۔d the race because he had been strenuous۔ly train۔ing.

Past-conditional  [English “conditional perfect”]

            ActiveShe would have sing۔t the song, if…    'English:  She would have sung the song, if….]

            PassiveThe song would have been sing۔t by her.       The song would have been sung by her.

            Examples:  If i had known, i would have prepare۔d.  If only he had propose۔d, i would have marry۔d he.

Future-simple  [English:  “simple future”]

            ActiveShe will sing the song.   [English:  She will sing the song.]

            PassiveThe song will be sing۔t by she.    [English:  The song will be sung by her.]

            Active form:  will + verb-root

            Passive form:  will be + verb-root + hyphnette + t

            Usage:  Future-simple verbs refer to activity in the future.

            Example:  Today i will go to school.  [English:  Today I am going to go to school.]

 Future-continuous  [English:  “future continuous”, “future progressive”]

            Active:  She will be sing۔ing the song.    [English:  She will be singing the song.]

            Passive:                                                                        

            Form of future-continuous verbs:  will be + verb-root + hyphnette + ing

            Usage:  Verbs in this tense are used when a future action is interrupted, or when two future actions

occur simultaneously.  Emphasis is on the action, not on the duration.

            Examples:  I will be wait۔ing at the bus station when you arrive.

At six oclock i will still be work۔ing.  (Note:  adverb “still” can be placed anywhere.)

                        By the time we arrive, everybody will be eat۔ing.

            Note:  Negative “not” is added before “be”.  Example:  I will not be work۔ing in France next year.

Future completion  [English:  “future perfect”]

            ActiveShe will have sing۔t the song.    [English:  She will have sung the song.]

            PassiveThe song will have been sing۔t by her.    [English:  The song will have been sung by her.]

            Active form:  will + have + verb + hyphnette + “d”

            Passive form:  will + have + been + verb-root + hyphnette + t

            Usage:  Verbs in this tense refer to an action that will occur before another action or event in the future.

            Examples:  By next year, i will have retire۔d.  By the end of my trip, i will have travel۔d to ten nations.

                        By next month i will have reside۔d here nine years.

Future-imperative

            ActiveShe must sing the song tomorrow.    [English;  She must sing the song tomorrow.]

            Passive:  The song must be sing۔t tomorrow.    [English:  The song must be sung tomorrow.]

Future-to-future-continuous  [English  “future perfect continuous”]

            Active:  She will have been study۔ing by the time…   [English:  She will have been studying by the time…]

            Passive:                                                                       

            Active form:  will + have + been + verb-root + hyphenette + “ing”

            Usage:  Verbs in this tense indicate an action or condition that begins the in future and continues to

            another point in the future.  Emphasis is on duration, not action..

            Examples:  She will have been study۔ing 22 years by the time she receive her doctorate.

Future-conditional

            ActiveIf she come, I will go.    If he will let me, I can do  it.    [English:  If she comes, I will go.   If  he will let me, I can  do it.]

            Passive:  --

            Ex:  If rain tomorrow, they will cancel the game.  [English:  It it rains tomorrow, they will cancel the game.]

          

 ACTIVE & PASSIVE MODES  [English “voice”]

            Sentences have two modes:  active-mode and passive-mode.  Most sentences are active-mode.

                        Active-mode sentence:  the sentence-subject initiates the action.

                                    Ex:  The boy throw۔d the ball.  Ex:  The boy throw۔d the ball to the dog.

                                    Form of active-mode sentence:  action-initiator + verb ( + action-receiver ).

                        Passive-mode sentence:  the sentence-subject receives the action.

                                    Form of passive-mode sentence:

action-receiver + copula + verb-root + hyphenette + t + by + action-initiator.

            (“by + action-initiator” is optional.)

                                                Copula forms:  be, being, iz, wuz, will be, wuz being, have been, had been,

will have been.

                                                (“get” is not a substitute for a copula in passive-mode constructions.)

                                    Ex:  The ball was throw۔t.  Ex:  The ball wuz throw۔t by the boy.

                                    The copula designates the tense.

                                                Ex:  The song wuz sing۔t yesterday; the song will be sing۔t again tomorrow.

                                    Preceding the copula, other words can be added.  E.g., should, can, could, must.

                                                Ex:  Our cat must be feed۔t twice per day.

                                                Ex:  The festival could have been start۔t much early۔er.

                        Passive-mode explanation:

                                    Passive-mode removes emphasis from the subject of the sentence.

                                                The focus is on the object, not on the subject (which may or may not be added).

                                    Passive-mode is ideal when:

                                                The receiver of the action is more important that the initiator of the action.

                                                            Ex:  The hero will be reward۔t by the community.

                                                The intiator of the action is unknown.

                                                            Ex:  The house wuz vandalize۔t.

                                                The initiator of the action is unimportant.

                                                            Ex:  The town wuz establish۔t long ago.

                                                            In scientific and technical writing, focus is typically on the result.

                                                The initiator of the action is best not mentioned.

                                                            Ex:  A mistake wuz make۔t.  (Who to blame, not the issue.)

                                    The initiator of the action, when mentioned, it usually added in a prepositional phrase.

                                                Ex:  The girl wuz rescue۔t by a police۔woman.

                                    There are no restrictions on what follows a passive-mode-verb.

                                                Ex:  A holiday iz schedule۔t dur next Friday.

                                    Passive–mode-verbs are enhanced by adverbs.

                                                Ex:  Those four songs iz always sing۔t beautyful۔ly.

                                    [English, by using a past-tense verb form (i.e. past-participle) to indicate passive mode, 

often confuses by combining different tenses in the same sentence. 

Ex:  The criminal will be (future tense) punished (past tense).

The hero is (present-tense) rewarded (past tense).

                                                Peoplese has no past-participles.

The problem is that English has no unique method for indicating passive-mode.]

                        If no advantage to using passive-mode, active-mode is generally preferable.                    

 

            English present-particples and past-participles.

                        No such concept in Peoplese.

                        English present- and past-participles used as adjectives appear in Peoplese as adnouns.

English past-participles usually describe somebody’s feelings, using verb form “to be”.

                                                In such cases, Peoplese uses the verb “feel” followed by an adnoun,

often with an adnoun ending, such as hyphnette y. 

                                                Ex:  English “I am exhausted” → Peoplese “I feel exhaust۔y.”

                                                Ex:  English “He was amused.” → Peoplese “He feel۔d amuse۔y.”

Ex:  exhaust۔y task, interest۔y situation.

                                    English present-participles used as adjectives likewise appear as adnouns in Peoplese.

                                                Ex:  English “exciting situation” → Peoplese “excite۔y situation

                                    English irregular past-participles used as adnouns appear in Peoplese as simple adnouns.

                                                Ex:  stolen purse steal۔t purse, proven theory prove۔t theory

                        English present- and past-partciples are used as helping verbs to form verb tenses.

                                    Peoplese uses past-tense, continuing-tenese, and passive-mode verbs to form tenses.

                                                See complete list of verb tenses in this grammar section.

                        English present- and past-participles are used for passive voice.

                                    Peoplese uses verb-root + hyphnette t for passive mode. 

                                                See discussion and examples in this grammar section.

 

 INFINITIVES

            Form:  to + verb-root

            Explanation:  In Chinese a verb can follow another verb; e.g. 我要去, I want go.

                        In Spanish, the second verb is an infinitive; e.g. Quiero ir, I want to go.

            Peoplese tends toward adding “to” between verbs, but optional if not needed for clarity.

                        Ex:  I want to become a nurse.  [Natural phrasing in Europe and the Americas.]

                        Ex:  I want become a nurse.  [Natural phrasing in eastern Asia.]    

                        Both examples are correct in Peoplese.

            English constructions using “be” are often overly complicated, and can easily be rewritten.

                        Ex:  English “I am glad to be living here” → I iz glad to live here.

            “used” + infinitive verb indicates an action that occurred in the past but is no longer occurring.

                        Ex:  I used to smoke cigarettes. (not any more)

             Infinitives (like gerunds) can be used as nouns, both as subjects and objects.

                        Ex:  To work is to thrive.  I love to dance.

 

ADVERBS

            An adverbs is a descriptive word whose chief function is to enhance a verb by adding description.

                        Ex:  She cheerful۔ly help۔d.  He happy۔ly agree۔d.

            Adverbs also enhance other adverbs.

                        Ex:  The dog very quick۔ly run۔d away.  She sing۔d incredible۔ly beautyful۔ly.

            Introducers introduce phrases and sentences by adding meaning to them.  (See description below.)

                        Ex:  Logical۔ly, …  Ironic۔ly, …  Luck۔yly…  Realistic۔ly…  Personal۔ly, …  Initial۔ly …

Peoplese adverbs do not enhance or modify adnouns.  [Unlike English]

            Typically but not necessarily, adverbs preceed verbs. 

                        Ex:  They joyful۔ly marry۔d, and live۔d happy۔ly ever after.

Criterion:  Must be completely clear which verb the adverb enhances.

Default form:  adnoun + hyphnette + ly.

                        Ex:  quick۔ly, happy۔ly, mature۔ly, true۔ly, un۔tidy۔ly.

            Compound Adverb Suffixes

                        Adnoun suffixes “۔less” and “۔ish” can be combined to adverb suffix “۔ly”

                                                to form compound adverb suffixes:  ۔lessly” and “۔ishly”.

                                    Adnoun suffix “۔less” means “without”;

Adnoun suffix “۔ish” means “similar (but different)”.

                                                Ex:  flaw۔lessly, child۔ishly.

                        Ex:  Consider the English sentence: “He is healthy, because he eats healthily.”

                                    The English adjective is “healthy”, the Englsh adverb “healthily”.

                                    The Peoplese adnoun is “health۔y”, the Peoplese adverb “health۔yly”

                                    Peoplese:  He iz health۔y, because he eat health۔yly.

            [English adverb word-ending “ally” is not generally used after adnouns in Peoplese.

                        Ex:  barbaric۔ly  ← English “barbarically”, because “barbaric” is the adnoun-root.

                        Ex:  acoustic۔ly ← English “acoustically”, because “acoustic” is the adnoun۔root.

                        Ex:  basic۔ly ← English “basically”, because “basic” is an adnoun۔root (also a noun-root).]

            Many of civilization’s oldest adverbs do not have ۔ly suffixes.

                        Ex:  also, always, behind, down, everywhere, hence, later, never, not, now, often, quite,

                                    somewhat, still, there, therefore, thus, today, very, yesterday.

            Combining two English words into a single Peoplese adverb:

When two English words form a meaning that is not an obvious result of the combination

 of those two words, Peoplese combines them into a single Peoplese word.

                        Adverb ex:  enmass, enroute, infact, ingeneral, inkind, inperson, intandem,           intoto, invain

justnow, justhen, moreso, nolonger, nomatter, nosooner, nowonder, outloud, viceversa.

(“just” in Peoplese refers to justice.)

 

INTRODUCERS

            Introducers are single introductory words which color the meaning of a sentence or phrase.

            Introducers usually appear at the beginning of a sentence, often followed by a comma.

                        Often it is the sentences verb that the introductory-word refers to.

                                    Ex:  Rare۔ly do we exercise.  (I.e., we rare۔ly exercise.)

            Form:  word-root + hyphnette + ly

            Examples

                        Ex:  Present۔ly, electricity in the city is sufficient.  (The implication is that in the past, and/or

                                    in the future, electricity was or may not be sufficient.)

                        Ex:  Ideal۔ly, everybody should be honest.

            Introducers added later in a sentence often temporarily mislead the reader.

                        Ex:  She wuz poor student initial۔ly, yet later she excel۔d.

                                    (The reader learns that she was a poor student, then realizes she is a good student.)

                        Ex:  I exercise every day rare۔ly.  (Here the speaker may have jokingly temporarily misled.)


 CONJUNCTIONS

            Conjunctions are words that link words and clauses within a sentence.  They contribute to fluidity.

            Common conjunctions include:  after, although, and, as if, aslongas, because, before, even if, even

                        thought, if, incase, lest, or, since, therefore, though, thus, unless, until, yet.

            Conjunctions which occur in pairs include:  both / and, either / or, neither / nor, not only / but also.

            Ex:  I want to travel to foreign nations, and chat with foreign friends.

            Note that “so” is not a synonym for “thus” or “therefore”;

Neither “as”, “for”, or “since” are synonyms for “because”.

 

 PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES

            A prepositional phrase is a phrase that consists of a preposition and a preposition-object.

                        A noun-article and/or an adnoun is often inserted before the preposition-object.

            A prepositional phrase enhances (adds description to) the sentence in which is appears.

                        Ex:  She pick۔d a flower in the park.  The boy is play۔ing with a red balloon.

            Prepositional phrases can be inserted anywhere in a sentence as long as the meaning is clear.

                        Ex:  After work, he shop۔d at the grocery store.  He shop۔d at the grocery store after work.

                                    Note, however, the subtle difference in the above two sentences:  in the first, the

                                    emphasis is what he did after work; in the second, his stop at the store is emphasized.

            Sentences often have several prepositional phrases.

            Common prepositions:  about, above, across, after, against, along, amid, among, around, at, before,

behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, by, despite, down, dur [English “during”],

except, for, from, in, inside, into, near, of, off, on, outside, over, past, per, through, to, under,

                        up, with, without.

 

 INTERJECTIONS

            Interjections are words that interject emotion, sentiment, or other meaning.

            Common interjections:  wow, oh, ha, 

            More interjections:  aha, alas, bingo, boo, eek, gee, golly, hey, oops, ouch, phooey, shh, shoo, yeah,

                        yo, yuck.

            Usually interjection are a one-word sentence, theerfore capitalized, and followed by a punctuation mark.

                        Punctuation after interjections follows regular punctuation rules. 

                                    Ex:  Wow!  Oh?  Oh!  Ha!  Uh.  Eek!  Ouch!

                        Yet interjections can occur within sentences, typically with quotation marks.

                                    Ex:  “Ouch!”, she utter۔d, withdraw۔ing her hand from the hot stove.

            The interjection “uh” is useful in informing the listeners that you intend to continue your sentence,

                        but that you need a moment to come up with the appropriate word.  The alternative is to pause,

in which case the listeners might assume you have completed your sentence.

                        Ex:  My intention wuz, uh, not to punish but to instruct.

                        “uh” is often useful, when Peoplese is your foreign language, to buy time to remember the word.

                                    Ex:  We iz plan۔ing, uh, a picnic.


 WRONG IS WRONG

            As explained above and emphasized elsewhere in this website, there is no “wrong” in Peoplese.  The grammar points articulated above are guidelines; the higher level the Peoplese speaker, the more they will be adhered to.  Species language Peoplese, which was originally designed to clearly and unambiguously communicate with aliens from distant solar systems, not only welcomes but encourages variations from all of people’s many langauges, so that different ethnicitys can add ethnic flavor.  Market-level Peoplese speakers, and global travelers, need not waste time and energy striving for grammatical correctness.  Learn a core of word-roots and a hundred or so prefixes and suffixes, and you are good to go.  The goal is to communicate.  Most Peoplese speakers will be content with the three of four main verb tenses.  Yet Peoplese is capable of even the most complex and nuanced expression.

            A major impediment to learning foreign languages, teachers know, is students’ fear of speaking incorectly.  This is not a problem with Peoplese.  If anybody tells you that your Peoplese is “wrong”, he or she is wrong.



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/ nor, not only / but also.

            Ex:  I want to travel to foreign nations, and chat with foreign friends.

            Note that “so” is not a synonym for “thus” or “therefore”;

Neither “as”, “for”, or “since” are synonyms for “because”.

 

 PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES

            A prepositional phrase is a phrase that consists of a preposition and a preposition-object.

                        A noun-article and/or an adnoun is often inserted before the preposition-object.

            A prepositional phrase enhances (adds description to) the sentence in which is appears.

                        Ex:  She pick۔d a flower in the park.  The boy is play۔ing with a red balloon.

            Prepositional phrases can be inserted anywhere in a sentence as long as the meaning is clear.

                        Ex:  After work, he shop۔d at the grocery store.  He shop۔d at the grocery store after work.

                                    Note, however, the subtle difference in the above two sentences:  in the first, the

                                    emphasis is what he did after work; in the second, his stop at the store is emphasized.

            Sentences often have several prepositional phrases.

            Common prepositions:  about, above, across, after, against, along, amid, among, around, at, before,

behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, by, despite, down, dur [English “during”],

except, for, from, in, inside, into, near, of, off, on, outside, over, past, per, through, to, under,

                        up, with, without.

 

 INTERJECTIONS

            Interjections are words that interject emotion, sentiment, or other meaning.

            Common interjections:  wow, oh, ha, 

            More interjections:  aha, alas, bingo, boo, eek, gee, golly, hey, oops, ouch, phooey, shh, shoo, yeah,

                        yo, yuck.

            Usually interjection are a one-word sentence, theerfore capitalized, and followed by a punctuation mark.

                        Punctuation after interjections follows regular punctuation rules. 

                                    Ex:  Wow!  Oh?  Oh!  Ha!  Uh.  Eek!  Ouch!

                        Yet interjections can occur within sentences, typically with quotation marks.

                                    Ex:  “Ouch!”, she utter۔d, withdraw۔ing her hand from the hot stove.

            The interjection “uh” is useful in informing the listeners that you intend to continue your sentence,

                        but that you need a moment to come up with the appropriate word.  The alternative is to pause,

in which case the listeners might assume you have completed your sentence.

                        Ex:  My intention wuz, uh, not to punish but to instruct.

                        “uh” is often useful, when Peoplese is your foreign language, to buy time to remember the word.

                                    Ex:  We iz plan۔ing, uh, a picnic.


 WRONG IS WRONG

            As explained above and emphasized elsewhere in this website, there is no “wrong” in Peoplese.  The grammar points articulated above are guidelines; the higher level the Peoplese speaker, the more they will be adhered to.  Species language Peoplese, which was originally designed to clearly and unambiguously communicate with aliens from distant solar systems, not only welcomes but encourages variations from all of people’s many langauges, so that different ethnicitys can add ethnic flavor.  Market-level Peoplese speakers, and global travelers, need not waste time and energy striving for grammatical correctness.  Learn a core of word-roots and a hundred or so prefixes and suffixes, and you are good to go.  The goal is to communicate.  Most Peoplese speakers will be content with the three of four main verb tenses.  Yet Peoplese is capable of even the most complex and nuanced expression.

            A major impediment to learning foreign languages, teachers know, is students’ fear of speaking incorectly.  This is not a problem with Peoplese.  If anybody tells you that your Peoplese is “wrong”, he or she is wrong.



Geographical
Words
  Geopolitical
Words
  Spiritual
Words
  Dictionary   Creating
New Words
  Learn
Peoplese